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The United States' reluctance to threaten the relative stability of northern Iraq by launching operations against the PKK led the Turkish Parliament to authorise a cross border military operation in Current relations with Kurdistan Region are good, which is important to help prevent a restart of the Kurdish—Turkish conflict and to diversify Turkey's energy sources. Turkey was the first country with a Muslim majority to formally recognize the State of Israel, on 28 March ; before Israel was admitted to the United Nations on 11 May The later record of warm relations in the 19th century, when the British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli , himself of Jewish origin, supported the Ottoman Empire in numerous disputes, particularly in the Berlin Congress of During the s and s, the Republic of Turkey again served as a safe haven for the European Jewish refugees fleeing the Nazi -perpetrated Holocaust.

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Another diplomat, Necdet Kent , also rescued Jews from Nazi authorities, for which he was awarded a special medal by the government of the State of Israel. During the late 20th century, Israel has been a major supplier of arms to Turkey. Military, strategic, and diplomatic cooperation between Turkey and Israel is accorded very high priority by the governments of both countries, which share concerns with respect to the regional instabilities in the Middle East.

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Turkey also provided its large air space something Israel lacks to the jets of the Israeli Air Force for training purposes, particularly the area around the Konya Air Base in central Anatolia. There was a plan to build a massive pipeline from Turkey to supply water, electricity, gas and oil to Israel. In the beginning of , the Israeli Foreign Ministry characterized its relations with Turkey as "perfect".

However, in February , a visit paid by Khaled Meshal , leader of the newly elected Hamas , changed this status. Some have suggested that this was only a public relations stunt to show the Islamic world that Turkey was on their side because Turkey had been silent in major issues important to Arabs and the Islamic community such as the Israeli—Palestinian conflict and the Lebanon crisis. New tensions arose in Turkish—Israeli relations during the — Israel—Gaza conflict. Turkey's Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan became among the most outspoken critics of Israel's conduct in the war, referring to its military operations as a "crime against humanity".

Relations suffered a further blow when during the World Economic Forum in Davos at 29 January , when Prime Minister Erdogan walked out of the forum in protest, frustrated that he had not been given enough time to reply to Israeli President Shimon Peres. Erdogan harshly criticized the President, stating Israel knew "very well how to kill". Turkey recognized Kazakhstan on 16 December , on the same day Kazakhstan declared its independence.

Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on 2 March These relations have developed positively on the international stage as well as in commerce and strategic affairs. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Turkey describes the current relations at "outstanding levels".

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The two countries have recently signed fifteen agreements for cooperation in tourism, health, environment, economy, commercial exchange and oil. We share the conviction that we attach great importance to the stability of Afghanistan in particular and that we should provide all sorts of assistance regarding this issue. We have felt at home in our ancestral homeland while we have been in Kyrgyzstan," and added, in a speech to the Jogorku Kenesh , that, "You are being represented in Europe through us, and were being represented in the Commonwealth of Independent States through you.

I believe that this is important. Turkey is one of Kyrgyzstan's major trade partners. With their knowledge of Kyrgyz and Uzbek languages, and many Istanbul merchant's familiarity with Russian, many Kyrgyzstan traders sometimes manage to do their purchasing in Turkey without having to learn the Turkish language.

There is academic exchange between the two countries as well. Turkey provides support for a number of universities in Kyrgyzstan, while many scholars from Kyrgyzstan are attracted to the opportunities to teach in Turkey. Lebanon has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate general in Istanbul. Turkey has an embassy in Beirut. Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 May Pakistan has an embassy in Ankara, a consulate-general in Istanbul and an honorary consulate in Izmir whereas, Turkey has an embassy in Islamabad , a Consulate-General in Karachi and honorary consulates in Lahore , Peshawar , Sialkot and Faisalabad.

Relations between the two date back generations before the establishment of the two states, more precisely during the Turkish War of Independence when the Muslims of modern Pakistan sent financial aid to the declining Ottoman Empire which was followed by the formation of the Turkish Republic.

As a result, Pakistan and Pakistanis have enjoyed a positive perception in Turkey and amongst Turks for many decades. Turkey established its resident embassy in Manila in and an honorary consulate in Cebu in The Philippines established its resident embassy in Ankara in October Qatar and Turkey have improved relations for several years. Both countries mainly have cooperation over regional developments such as the civil war in Syria and the Egyptian crisis. However, analysts believe both countries' relations lack substance in terms of economic, cultural and social ties.

Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate—general in Istanbul. Turkey and South Korea established diplomatic relations on 8 March The relations have been very close and warm because of the Turkish military support to South Korea during the Korean War. Syrian—Turkish relations have long been strained even though Turkey shares its longest common border with Syria and various other geographic, cultural, and historical links tie the two neighbouring states together. This friction has been due to disputes including the self annexation of the Hatay Province to Turkey in , water disputes resulting from the Southeastern Anatolia Project , and Syria's support for the outlawed Kurdistan Workers' Party PKK.

The Turkish—Syrian relationship showed great improvement when Turkey and Syria have cancelled entry visas and signed joint declaration of strategic council in Due to the Syrian uprising , Turkey has suspended diplomatic contact with Syria. On June the Syrian military shot down a Turkish F-4 Phantom fighter jet after it had entered Syrian airpsace over the Mediterranean Sea. Turkey recognized the independence of Tajikistan on 16 December and established diplomatic relations on 29 January Turkey's relations with Tajikistan are considered within the framework of relations with other Central Asian republics but developed more slowly due to Tajikistan's internal war between and During this period the Turkish embassy in Dushanbe was the only diplomatic mission which remained open and the visit of Turkish Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel was the only high level visit to Tajikistan.

On February the principles for the cooperation of the Turkish Ministry of Education and the Turkmenistan Ministry of Sciences were determined. Since then at later meetings it has been discussed how Turkey and Turkmenistan can address their common problems in the field of education.

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The Turkish application to join the European Economic Community now the European Union as an associate member in soon resulted in associate membership in , with full membership being acknowledged as the final goal. However, problems in foreign policy such as the Cyprus conflict and the internal political turbulence from the s until the early s forced Turkey to delay applying for full membership of the European Community until The application was rejected, although the E.

An EU-Turkey Customs Union agreement came into effect on 1 January , allowing goods to travel between Turkey and the EU member states without customs restrictions , although it crucially stopped short of lifting restrictions in areas such as agriculture.

checkout.midtrans.com/conocer-personas-a-baa.php The accession talks did not follow immediately, however, as the EU said Turkey had to make significant reforms, particularly in the field of human rights, before the talks could begin. Turkey's current administration has identified EU membership as its top priority, and has taken many — and sometimes controversial — reform packages through the Parliament aimed at gradually harmonizing Turkey with EU standards.

Since October , Turkey has formally started accession negotiations with the EU and these will be based on the acquis communautaire.


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Turkey has close historical, cultural, economic and political ties with some of the Balkan states, which are important for Turkey as they are the country's gateway to continental Europe. Turkey attaches importance to the creation of an atmosphere of mutual understanding and peaceful co-habitation through closer ties with the Balkan countries, which would lead to the preservation of peace and stability in the region. From the middle ages until the twentieth century today's Austria and Turkey were the core regions within much larger empires.

The Habsburg and Ottoman states were both large multi-ethnic conglomerations sustained by conquest. These rival empires waged frequent wars against each other over control of much Central Europe and the Balkans. Turkey was the first country to recognize Belarus on 16 December after the declaration of its independence on 25 August and the two countries established formal diplomatic relations on 25 June Belarus has an embassy in Ankara and Turkey has an embassy in Minsk. In violence erupted on the island following attempts to amend constitutional safeguards for Turkish Cypriots, leading to a separation of the two communities.

This led to Turkey's military intervention under the Treaty of Guarantee. The international community, including the Republic of Cyprus considers it as an illegal invasion. Turkish Cypriot leader, Rauf Denktas and Greek Cypriot leader Glafcos Clerides reached an agreement in Vienna on 2 August for the "exchange of populations" under the auspices of the UN and this agreement was implemented by the mediation of the UN peace-keeping force.

The two sides reached the first high level agreement following a meeting between Denktas and Makarios on 12 February This four article agreement envisaged the establishment of a bicommunal federal republic on the island. However, in the north of the island Turkish Cypriots established on 15 November the de facto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus , which is recognised only by Turkey. Turkey refers to the government of the Republic of Cyprus as the "Greek Cypriot Administration" and its presidents as "Greek Cypriot leaders.

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A comprehensive peace plan negotiated with the full support of the international community was submitted to simultaneous but separate referenda in the North and South of Cyprus on 24 April This in turn has led to tension with Turkey's own EU membership aspirations, with the Republic of Cyprus blocking eight chapters due to Turkey's refusal to open its ports to Greek Cypriot shipping. Turkey announced its support for the Annan Plan for Cyprus.

Northern Cyprus also maintains a diplomatic mission in Turkey.


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The issue of recognition became a thorn in Turkey's candidacy for European Union membership, particularly after the internationally recognized south was admitted to the Union in Acting in conformity with its statement during the EU's Brussels summit of 17 December , Turkey signed the additional protocol to the Ankara Agreement on 29 July , before commencing accession talks with the EU. The protocol, which extends the Ankara Agreement to all members of the European Union including Cyprus , was signed by exchange of letter between Turkey, the EU term presidency and the EU Commission.

Simultaneously, Turkey issued a statement to the effect that the signature, adoption and implementation of the protocol would not in any way constitute recognition of the government of the Republic of Cyprus which Turkey calls the Greek Cypriot Administration. In its annual handbook, the Turkish government states that "as a result of the policies pursued by the EU member, GCA [Cyprus], Turkish EU relations which would otherwise progress along their natural course suffer a number of problems" [].

Based on good Turkish-German relations from the 19th century onwards, Germany promoted a Turkish immigration to Germany. However, large scale didn't occur until the 20th century. Germany suffered an acute labor shortage after World War II and, in , the Federal Republic of Germany West Germany officially invited Turkish workers to Germany to fill in this void, particularly to work in the factories that helped fuel Germany's economic miracle.

The German authorities named these people Gastarbeiter German for guest workers. Today, Turks are Germany's largest ethnic minority and form most of Germany's Muslim minority. Turkey and Greece have clashed for decades over the status of Aegean islands and over the extent of territorial waters and airspace. The tensions came to the brink of war on a number of occasions, most recently in , when Greek and Turkish warships faced each other close to the disputed Imia-Kardak rocks.

Only U. Aegean disputes constitute one of the main reasons for the fluctuating course of Turkish-Greek relations. There is a series of interconnected problems between Turkey and Greece, all emanating from the Aegean Sea. The length of territorial waters, demarcation of the continental shelf, determination of maritime search and rescue zones, air space disputes, militarization of the Eastern Aegean Islands in breach of international agreements, the status of certain Aegean islets which, Turkey claims, were not ceded to Greece by international agreements and the absence of an agreement defining maritime borders with Greece in the Aegean are the major disputes between the two countries.


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These disputes remain unresolved mainly because of a lack of common understanding between the two sides regarding the "existence" and "methods of solution" of the problems. Rejecting the existence of other disputes, Greece notes that the only dispute in the Aegean is the continental shelf issue and claims that it can only be resolved by jurisprudence.